Suppose you retire to a new state with warm weather and lower taxes. If you keep a part-time home in your original state or you later decide to return, you could have a tax problem. State tax authorities may argue you never really left, and that you owe them a big tax bill for all the income you earned while away. Here are tips to ensure this does not happen to you.
Tax residency is usually based on the concept of "domicile." You may have many homes, but you can only have one domicile. A domicile is the place you intend to be your permanent home, and where you intend to return after being away. When these cases go to court, they are often decided by determining a person's intentions regarding their domicile. Consider this hypothetical example:
Illinois resident Steve Seeyoulater moved to an apartment to pursue a lucrative job opportunity in Indianapolis, leaving his wife and children behind in Chicago. Steve reasoned that since he spent more than 70 percent of his time in Indiana, he could file his state return there and take advantage of its lower tax rate. The state of Illinois could easily disagree with Steve's assumption, since on the surface Steve intends for his permanent home to remain where his family is, in Illinois.
Know the rules before you move
Before moving, research the residency rules in your home and destination states. They often vary from state to state. Some states have specific guidelines on the number of days its residents must be in the state. Others are less exact.
Keep good records
If you say you are in a state for a certain period of time, be ready to support your claim. If during an audit your credit card receipts conflict with where you claimed to be at the time, you will have problems.
Demonstrate your intentions
If you're going to file as a resident of a new state but also have a potential tax claim in another state, you have to be able to demonstrate your sincere intent to change your domicile. Here are some things you can do: